ACC&D was founded in 2000 by Drs. Henry Baker, Stephen Boyle and Brenda Griffin as a program of Auburn University. During a strategic retreat in 2005, ACC&D created a plan for vastly increased impact. Subsequently, ACC&D hired its first staff members, expanded its Board of Directors, and incorporated as a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization in 2006. A Scientific Advisory Board was added in 2008. Since it was founded, ACC&D has held five international symposia to facilitate networking and information sharing in the field.
To expedite the successful introduction of methods to non-surgically sterilize dogs and cats and to support the distribution and promotion of these products to humanely control cat and dog populations worldwide.
We envision a world where wide use of non-surgical sterilants effectively reduces the number of unwanted cats and dogs.
Leadership and Advocacy: We are a leader in advocating for research into and implementation of non-surgical sterilization.
Sound Science: We base this work in sound science.
Partnership: We leverage partnerships and networks for the good of the cause.
Integrity: We act with integrity in all processes and relationships.
Priorities for Non-Surgical Products for Pet Population Control
• Approved by regulatory agencies as safe (for animals and for the humans administering) and effective.
• Permanent, though there may be some opportunity for long-term (3+ years) products.
• Deliverable in a single injection or treatment.
• Products available for effective use in both male and female, dogs and cats.
• Documented effects on behavior and health.
• Can be provided at affordable rates for use in indigent or low-income client populations.
Nonprofit Status and Funding
ACC&D is incorporated as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization with the IRS. We are funded entirely by charitable contributions from individuals and organizations. Please help us reach our goals by making a tax-deductible donation today. You can review our IRS Form 990 and/or make a donation by clicking here.
Directors, Advisors and Staff
About Non-Surgical Pet Contraception and Sterilization
Sterilization has long been recognized as the most effective means of controlling pet populations. Yet with the enormous number of owned and unowned cats and dogs in the U.S., the sterilization programs currently available are not enough. Spay/neuter requires anesthesia, a sterile surgical suite, a licensed veterinarian, recovery time, incision site observation, and more. In the U.S. alone, approximately 4 million animals are killed in shelters each year simply because they have no place else to go. We are not reaching enough of the cats and dogs at greatest risk of contributing to those numbers.
The situation in many other parts of the world is much more desperate. In dozens of under-developed nations, poverty is endemic. Veterinary access and financial resources are simply not at the needed levels for population control via surgical sterilization to be a real possibility. Municipal animal care and control systems are primitive or non-existent and surplus pets are often killed by archaic methods such as drowning and electrocution. Rabies is widespread and rabies control programs in many countries offer an existing infrastructure for delivery of non-surgical contraceptives, once they are available.
These are the reasons ACC&D was formed, and we hope you’ll help us achieve our goal: safe, effective, accessible sterilization for cats and dogs everywhere!
-Visit our News page for links to articles, press releases, and online forums and blogs
-Find out how you can help make this goal a reality
About Who's Involved
Because of the tremendous lifesaving potential of non-surgical pet sterilization, ACC&D has the support of animal welfare, veterinary, academic, foundation, and other organizations. With letters of support written by organizations ranging from the American Veterinary Medical Association to Best Friends Animal Society to the New York Centers for Animal Care and Control, ACC&D is able to demonstrate the urgency and demand for non-surgical sterilants to pharmaceutical companies and investors. By spreading the word about this important cause through their organization's media, our Organizational Partners help raise awareness, stimulate demand, and prepare markets for the introduction of these products. Please visit our Organizational Partners Program page to learn more about who's involved in this critical work, and to find out how you can join us!
In 2008, a new program arrived on the scene: the Found Animals Foundation's Michelson Prize & Grants has been a game changer in the field of non-surgical pet sterilization. The Michelson Prize offers $25 million to the first entity to provide a single dose sterilant for male and female cats and dogs. To facilitate research with promise of achieving that goal, the Michelson Grants offers up to $50 million in grants to support research toward that end. ACC&D is pleased to work with Found Animals on special projects related to advancing our shared goals. For more information about the Michelson Prize & Grants, click here.
- Approved by regulatory agencies as safe (for animals and for the humans administering) and effective.
- Permanent, though there may be some opportunity for long-term (3+ years) products.
- Deliverable in a single injection or treatment.
- Products available for effective use in both male and female, dogs and cats.
- Documented effects on behavior and health.
- Can be provided at affordable rates for use in indigent or low-income client populations.
Below we’ve included brief descriptions of commercialized products that last at least six months. For a more thorough review of recent research, please click on the Resources and Symposia link to view symposia proceedings and other sources of information.
From: Ark Sciences owns international rights to the formulation known as EsterilSol outside the U.S. and Zeuterin in the U.S.
Status: Neutersol was the first permanent injectable sterilant approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. Neutersol was introduced in 2003 but became unavailable in 2005 after the patent-holder and the marketing company parted ways. The same compound has since been approved by regulatory agencies in Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, and Panama under the name Esterilsol. Ark Sciences is preparing for the U.S. launch of Zeuterin in February 2014.
What It Is: Esterilsol/Zeuterin is an intratesticular injection of zinc gluconate neutralized by arginine. It is approved by the FDA for use in male dogs from 3 to 10 months of age, though it has been shown to be safe and effective for adult dogs through off-label use and has regulatory approval for dogs from three months and up in Mexico, Bolivia, Panama, and Colombia. (It is also approved for use in cats in Colombia.) It can be administered under light sedation. Hands-on training is required to ensure that practitioners understand and follow the injection protocol.
ACC&D Perspective: This formulation is the only non-surgical pet sterilant approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It presents opportunities for cost, time, and space savings for many sterilization programs in the countries in which it is available. A 10,000 dog field trial in Mexico demonstrated both safety and efficacy in adult dogs and in large field programs. ACC&D is interested in expanding learning about and effective use of Esterilsol/Zeuterin, and has funded several grants to this end.
For More Information: Click here to access additional information about Esterilsol/Zeuterin, including ACC&D's Product Profile and Position Paper. Information is also available on the Ark Sciences web site.
From: Distributed by Davol in Brazil.
Status: Infertile is approved by Brazil's Ministry of Agriculture. The product was launched in Brazil on March 3, 2009.
What It Is: Infertile is an injectable sterilant for male dogs administered via a single injection into each testicle. Studies show that the product provides permanent sterilization to 72% of dogs in one treatment. The product ingredients include zinc gluconate, arginine (as a neutralizing agent) and DMSO. Infertile is similar to EsterilSol/Zeuterin but with important differences.
ACC&D Perspective: Our concerns about Infertile include the relatively small sample size included in the safety studies and the 72% effectiveness rate. With further study, and possible refinement of formulation, Infertile has potential to aid in advancing sterilization programs in Brazil.
For More Information: Read our preliminary statement in English or in Portuguese. You can also access the Infertile package insert and the instructions for use (distributed with the product).
From: Virbac Animal Health
Status: Suprelorin was developed by Peptech Animal Health, which was purchased by Virbac Animal Health. Suprelorin is approved and available for use in male dogs in Australia (6-month and 12-month doses) since December 2004 and New Zealand (6-month dose only) since September 2005. The implant received European Union regulatory approval March 2007 and and is now available in several EU countries, with plans to expand to more.
What It Is: A deslorelin (GnRH agonist) implant for male dogs resulting in sterility for 6 or 12 months (both durations available).
ACC&D Perspective: Because Suprelorin is not permanent, it is not an ideal product for widespread population control, especially for dogs who lack owners or whose owners lack financial resources, which are the dogs at highest risk of producing unwanted litters. However, we believe Suprelorin may have potential to fill a niche in certain cases, such as when dogs must be held after rescue from natural disasters, or as evidence in court cases. Suprelorin has also been used off-label in bitches and in cats of both sexes, though there are special considerations in bitches and queens related to the initial hormone flare caused by treatment. There is also potential use for Suprelorin in bitches and in cats of both sexes, though more research is needed to better establish protocols for such use. Suprelorin may be able to be used in cats with longer efficacy than in dogs. ACC&D is working to pursue this possibility further, as we believe even a long-term contraceptive may be able to play a meaningful role in feral cat population management.
For more information: Visit the Peptech Virbac Group's Suprelorin website, read the Suprelorin Technical information, and read ACC&D's interview with Peptech's Paul Schober. Contact ACC&D directly at firstname.lastname@example.org to learn more about others' experiences with off-label use in bitches and queens.
From: National Wildlife Research Center of the USDA
Status: GonaCon has been approved by the EPA for use in deer and other cervids. Past and current research seeks to assess potential for use in dogs and cats. One study, published in 2011, found that of 15 cats treated with GonaCon, 93% were infertile at the end of one year, 73% remained infertile at the end of two years, 53% remained infertile at the end of three years, and 40% remained infertile at the end of four years.
What It Is: A GnRH vaccine developed and tested for use in several wildlife species.
ACC&D Perspective: Because GonaCon is assumed to not be permanent and is not effective in 100% of animals, it is not ideal. However, it could be potentially useful in control of feral colonies of cats. Current work on a new formulation may also lead to a product for dogs. We look forward to receiving and reviewing additional data as work on this approach progresses.
For More Information: Find the Wildlife Services GonaCon fact sheet here, the EPA fact sheet here, and an article on the USDA's website here. Access the article on Julie Levy's study of GonaCon in cats here.